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A Pocket Guide Critical communications for all professional users Robust Reliable Resilient Secure High spectral efficiency Multi slot operation Cost-effective geographical coverage Authentication and advanced air encryption Full end-to-end encryption Immediate remote disablement of lost or stolen devices Interoperable secure Virtual Private Networks Rapid call set-up and group call activation inside 500 milliseconds TETRA critical communications for all professional users Exceptional call quality Direct mode and repeater operation Gateway mode operation SDS and IP data communications Simultaneous voice and data Wide range of data applications Public voice and data network interoperability ATEX radios for use in hazardous environments Portable stand-alone systems for rapid deployment Open standard supported by multiple manufacturers Ongoing investment and development World-leading Interoperability Certification Process TETRA for rapid response 4 Contents Page Introduction 08 Setting the standard 10 The benefits of TETRA 13 The IOP Test and Certification process 20 Competitive or complementary 23 The future evolution of TETRA 27 The TCCA 32 Working Groups 35 Events 39 Glossary 43 TETRA for hazardous environments 7 TETRA for mining 8 Introduction TETRA Terrestrial Trunked Radio technology is in use throughout the world delivering secure reliable and robust critical communications. TETRA was born in ETSI in the 1990s when the professional mobile radio community collaborated to write a standard to meet the requirements of public safety and government users commercial professional users operators spectrum regulators manufacturers and others involved in the implementation of critical communications. TETRA is the public safety communications technology used by governments around the globe looking to protect their citizens. The rapid acceptance of TETRA by the public safety sector has catalysed its adoption by an increasingly wide range of markets. These include air rail road and water transport utilities mining the oil and gas exploration extraction and delivery industries commercial retail and leisure organisations all benefiting from the unique properties of TETRA networks whether using a single site or several thousand. TETRA is regularly deployed to ensure resilient and secure communications at major sporting events including the Olympic Games the FIFA World Cup and Formula One racing. TETRA networks are deployed across the world with millions of terminals delivering critical communications voice and data services. The success of the TETRA standard speaks for itself. This guide is intended as a brief introduction to TETRA. Should you require any further information please do get in touch with us at 9 TETRA for major events 10 Setting the standard Within the TETRA standard the air and network interfaces services and facilities are specified in sufficient detail to enable any manufacturer to develop infrastructure and mobile terminal products that will fully interoperate with each other. As the TETRA standard is supported by an increasing number of independent manufacturers this interoperability stimulates competition provides second source security and allows a greater choice of vehicle and hand-portable terminals and user applications. As with all standards there was flexibility in how TETRA technology could be implemented. To ensure that users benefit from the best possible quality and economies of scale the TETRA Association now the TCCA created the Interoperability Test and Certification IOP process. Member manufacturers agreed how the standard should be implemented and incorporated priorities and new requirements from the growing user community. The output of this process was fed back to ETSI and the standard updated. A number of enhancements to the TETRA standard were made in what is known as TETRA Release 2. The most significant of these was TETRA Enhanced Data Services TEDS which provides a substantial increase in mission critical data speeds. The technology is a living standard continuing its development and evolution through the work of ETSI and the TCCA. Supporting documentation is available at TETRA - protecting the irreplaceable 13 The benefits of TETRA Communications security and privacy Communications security is a prerequisite for public safety agencies and a key requirement for the increasing number of other critical communications users that rely on TETRA. TETRA builds on the inherent security strengths of digital technology. A key feature of TETRA is the protection of the radio connection between devices and radio sites through the application of advanced Air Interface Encryption techniques. TETRAs security measures deliver the strongest levels of protection ensuring the privacy of conversations and the secure transmission of sensitive data. A potential security loophole in networks devices is also addressed. Authentication at the connection between device and network controls traffic to ensure that transmissions are from approved users. If a terminal is misplaced or stolen it can be remotely disabled immediately. TETRA allows networks to be partitioned. This ensures that different user groups and organisations have access to private communications over their own Virtual Private Network VPN securely tunnelled across the system. If interoperability between agencies is required this can be can be provisioned immediately and securely. TETRA offers an extended range of voice capabilities. A critical feature is call quality. Call clarity is exceptional due to digital technology and special coding algorithms that help to screen out background noise. TETRAs capacity management features support rapid call set-up across many users and over large areas even while the network is being used heavily. Group calls can be activated at the touch of a button inside 500 milliseconds enabling almost instantaneous group communication collaboration and coordination. Many TETRA solutions also enable calls to be recorded for analysis to refine crisis management and operational procedures. Critical communications for all professional users 14 Delivering the data User access to a wide range of applications is key to the ongoing success of TETRA. Applications can vary from location information to the delivery of mission-critical images and video over TEDS-capable networks. TETRA offers a range of data features to support these applications and delivers them with the same quality and security as voice services on the same network. There is also a standardised Peripheral Equipment Interface PEI if additional equipment such as a laptop or camera is required. Status messaging can be used to quickly report a change of status such as going off duty. It can also be used to trigger a range of functionality such as enabling or disabling gateway mode. Short Data Services SDS looks similar to text messages SMS over GSM and can be delivered to and from GSM devices through a gateway but have more functionality including group data and can be concatenated to give around 1000 characters. This capability has resulted in SDS becoming the preferred transport mode for a wide range of critical applications where the guarantee of delivery is more important than the quantity of data such as allocating work items or interrogating databases. TETRA is used for example to deliver colour images of wanted or missing persons to the screen of a single terminal or simultaneously to the screens of multiple terminals TETRA also delivers Internet Protocol IP data. IP is a flexible and highly scalable technology so capacity can be efficiently added as required. An open standard IP also reduces the cost of developing and provisioning new applications resulting in an increasing number of services. As IP will be the backbone of communications systems for the foreseeable future new developments can be easily integrated to upgrade networks providing long term protection for legacy investments. 15 There are many other examples of data applications being supported by TETRA IP and SDS data. Dispatch teams can send advance information to emergency response officers on their way to an incident. The intelligence may include statistics on likely injuries and the number of casualties for paramedics. For fire teams it can include information on the possibility of hazardous substances being present in a building. In other situations police dispatch teams can access the records of a suspect and review the types of officers available to assess the best way to approach the individual. Railway mechanics can be sent an image of a damaged metro train to advise them on the problem in advance and utility engineers can send site images back to base to ask for advice on how to repair a damaged component. TETRA systems are now widely used in the utilities oil and gas industries. In all these situations users face hazardous environments and the possible presence of explosive substances dust and gases. TETRA terminals with ATEX1 certification can be safely used in all these areas as the terminals comply with rigorous safety requirements. Firefighters working in hazardous situations can transmit images to control centres for assistance in identifying symbols on chemical storage drums police officers looking for a suspect for a street robbery can be sent real-time pictures of the individual from security cameras while paramedics can provide pictures of a casualtys injury to a remote specialist to seek treatment advice. By applying TETRAs two way data communication channel field-based employees and public safety officers can also manage administration. Applications to improve device-based reporting while mobile include voice to text recognition tablet and stylus data entry drop-down forms and on-screen keyboards. Field engineers can use their TETRA devices to log service requests and complete reports on work conducted. Couriers can record customer signatures and remotely update central control systems to verify when packages have been collected an application that improves service by providing customers with real time delivery status. Critical communications for all professional users 16 In public safety markets real-time field-based biometric systems enable officers to use their TETRA devices to capture the fingerprints of a suspect and immediately verify identity against a remote database in a matter of seconds. Police officers can log incidents and update records on the move so they spend more time patrolling rather than managing paperwork back at base. Effective Dispatch With GPS-enabled TETRA radios and terminals individuals and vehicles can be viewed by location. This data is complemented by integrated applications presenting a real-time overview of operational intelligence such as officers specialist skills to recommend the most appropriate resource to send to incidents. Alongside managing personnel efficiently officers can attend situations secure in the knowledge that their exact position is tracked by the control room. If they encounter trouble they can request immediate back-up using voice channels or by triggering their radios distress signals. This capability is equally valuable in private TETRA networks and supports a wide range of applications across industry sectors for example utility firms have to deploy engineers to work in remote regions on infrastructure such as pylons and substations. In the event of problems they can instantly contact base for assistance. In the transport industry TETRA can be integrated with vehicle-tracking GPS systems to provide real-time timetable feeds to customers at bus stops. With fleet management systems controllers can also amend services perhaps by adding more vehicles to meet unexpected spikes in demand. The simple use of status messaging not only adds significantly to user safety it can be the basis of a comprehensive resource management process. 1 The ATEX directive consists of two EU directives describing what equipment is allowed in an environment with an explosive atmosphere. ATEX derives its name from the French title of the 949EC directive Appareils destins tre utiliss en ATmosphres EXplosibles TETRA for safety 19 TETRA for trams 20 The IOP Test and Certification process TETRA offers true interoperability achieved through the IOP Test and Certification process a strict independent and tightly controlled procedure developed and managed by the TCCA to ensure a truly open multi-vendor market. A healthy competitive market brings proven benefits to users such as choice of equipment and supplier continuous development of new products increased product functionality and improved price performance. For manufacturers it eliminates different and incompatible implementations of the TETRA standard and provides a formal compatibility test forum. It has contributed to a truly global market. Users can be confident that products awarded an IOP certificate have been rigorously tested for conformance and that the functions listed in the certificate fully meet the TETRA standard. This allows users selecting equipment from a number of suppliers to reduce the amount of system integration and testing. The TETRA IOP process is managed by the Technical Forum TF a TCCA Working Group. Targets and priorities are set each year in agreement with the Operators Users Association OUA Working Group. For each feature that is to be certified a TETRA Interoperability Profile TIP specification is created together with an Interoperability Test Plan. This is a detailed document that ensures that the tests are repeatable and identical in all test sessions. After the TIP and Test Plan have been approved test sessions can be conducted. The TCCA contracts an independent testing house to act as the certification authority for TETRA. After each session the testing house analyses the test results and issues a detailed official IOP Certificate. Test schedules and certificates are posted on where they can be accessed by TCCA members. TETRA for trains 23 Competitive or complementary TETRAs dominance of the critical communications marketplace is accepted yet the competitive landscape is changing and it is a difficult time to be a user looking for a PMR network. Other technologies are emerging with claims of critical communications credentials and users can be understandably confused. Society too is changing and the need for genuine mission critical communications capability across a range of situations and scenarios has never been more important. Users need to consider their options based on the delivery of the features and functions necessary today yet with full consideration given to the requirements of the future. There will be different approaches to the evaluation of PMR requirements depending on whether the customer is a new user or an existing user looking to upgrade. Is the migration process required to be gradual or is the demand for the rapid roll-out of an enhanced voice and data network Are significant increases in capacity functionality and coverage required Is multi-vendor choice important in the procurement process or not Users with a sizeable network need resilience redundancy full network control and accurate reporting. For public safety the network must be capable of remaining operational even under attack from man-made or natural disasters. If radio communications are critical to the safety of personnel and business survival then the network must be truly business-critical. Radio networks need to be specified with the future in mind. Users expecting to grow radio use need to consider channel usage will trunking be required in the future It is unrealistic to expect that PMR networks can stand alone isolated from other communications. Users may need their radio network to be an integral part of an overall telephone network with full duplex communication andor as an integral part of an IT network with full voice and data capabilities. Critical communications for all professional users 24 There are other PMR standards and there are communications standards that can work in tandem with TETRA. But they are not mission-critical they provide complementary capabilities that enable users to tailor network services to suit their individual needs while retaining the critical core TETRA network. Consumer-focused networks are developed for maximum profit not maximum resilience so cannot normally offer the levels of availability required by mission and business-critical organisations. If the requirement is for truly mission-critical communications then choosing the right technology is crucial. TETRA for reliability TETRA for power 27 The future evolution of TETRA TETRA is now a mature technology with a wide and competitive supplier base. TETRA is continuously evolving to meet user needs and this is particularly apparent in the area of data communications. To fulfil the requirements for greater data capacity the Multi Slot Packet Data service MSPD was developed on the TETRA 1 system. In addition TEDS was standardised to provide much greater flexibility in mission-critical data provision with higher data rates from a choice of channel widths. TEDS is a wideband data service allowing channels from 25kHz up to 150kHz wide to be utilised and delivering data rates in excess of 500kbps. We are now in a broadband data world. The existing TETRA customer base and those planning to deploy TETRA are looking for broadband data speeds to supplement their existing voice and data networks. The TCCA is helping to drive this evolution and is working with other user organisations and standards bodies around the world to bring the same benefits to the broadband world that users enjoy with TETRA. On the way to this broadband future we are also looking at further evolutions to the current TETRA and TEDS standards. These include enhancements to improve throughput coverage and capacity. Another potential development is the merging of voice and data services together on the TEDS wideband data channels. This would allow greater flexibility in planning TETRA systems as voice channels could then be adaptive as well as data channels to allow coverage and capacity to be tailored in each area according to its needs. Mixing voice and data together on the same carrier is also more efficient as the voice and data capacity can be traded from one instant to the next according to demand. Consumer broadband networks worldwide are increasingly based on 4G LTE standards. However LTE does not currently meet some fundamental requirements of critical communications users including the key functionalities Critical communications for all professional users 28 of group calls and direct mode1 . The TCCA is working with 3GPP ETSI and other standards bodies to rectify this. The evolution of TETRA will continue both as a standalone technology and interfacing with LTE to provide broadband data services over consumer andor dedicated networks. 1 Device to device communications capability when network coverage is unavailable TETRA for reassurance TETRA on the metro 31 TETRA at your service 32 The TCCA The TETRA MoU Association now the TCCA was originally established in 1994 to act on behalf of all interested parties in the development of the TETRA communications standard. Our goals today are to continue the development promotion and protection of the TETRA standard worldwide and to work with other technologies and user groups to look at new future and complementary technologies that deliver critical communications. Mobile broadband data involving the enhancement of the LTE standard is the immediate focus. Our Members include manufacturers application providers integrators operators and user organisations. The TCCA represents more than 160 organisations from all continents of the world providing a forum for all those interested in TETRA and the future of critical communications. We encourage the ongoing development of technology and drive and support initiatives to ensure appropriate levels of spectrum to enable the market expansion of TETRA and the evolution of critical communications. Members of the TCCA have the opportunity to be fully involved in influencing and advancing critical communications technology. Users can share knowledge experience and requirements. Manufacturers and suppliers can seize the opportunity to help open new markets and develop products and services that meet the needs of the professional communications user. The TCCA takes a pivotal role in the enhancement of the TETRA standard. We advise and inform existing and potential customers manufacturers suppliers and partners around the world and promote the TETRA standard to countries and their governments. TETRA for airports 35 Working Groups Within the TCCA there are a number of Working Groups mainly comprising volunteers who play a critical role in protecting promoting and advancing the TETRA standard and its evolution together with other PMR technologies into the broadband future. All TCCA Members are welcome to participate. The Applications Working Group Apps WG brings together users application developers and equipment manufacturers interested in data applications on TETRA networks. The Apps WG collects and organises requirements and provides a place to discuss data applications the sharing of experiences and best practices. The Critical Communications Broadband Group CCBG is driving the development of harmonised broadband solutions for current and future users of critical communications technologies. Spectrum requirements are addressed by the TCCAs dedicated Director Broadband Spectrum. Critical Control Room Group CCRG is TCCAs newest group founded following a series of end user oriented workshops to provide a focus for critical service control room discussion learning and proactive measures designed to pursue constant evolution and best practice for control rooms. The Marketing Group MG drives the integrated marketing communications activity positioning and raising the profile of the TCCA and the technology through the Events programme media and other market-facing activities. The Operator and User Association OUA is a forum for knowledge exchange between operators and users of TETRA systems. In close operation with ETSI Working Groups new user requirements are identified and converted into Service Overviews. The OUA carries the responsibility of collecting and submitting user priorities to the Technical Forum. The Radio Spectrum Group RSG works with pan-European regulatory bodies and across continents with governments and regulators to safeguard and promote the needs of critical communications users providing a collective voice on spectrum requirements. Critical communications for all professional users 36 The SCADA Smart Grid and Telemetry Group SSTWG is a forum for users manufacturers system integrators and developers to share experiences and requirements and catalyse the market for TETRA. Its aim is to encourage and support the development of suitable solutions both for traditional SCADA and telemetry applications and for new application areas such as smart grids. The Security and Fraud Prevention Group SFPG produces advice Technical Reports and makes recommendations which if complied with ensure the TETRA security features used in equipment supplied by different manufacturers are optimally and securely implemented whilst supporting interoperability. The Small and Medium Enterprise Forum SME Forum provides a mechanism for the small and medium enterprise TETRA manufacturers to ensure their interests views and proposals are noted by the TCCAs Board Forums and Working Groups. The Technical Forum TF provides a general forum for technical knowledge exchange. It develops and oversees the TETRA Interoperability Testing and Certification process. This allows TETRA equipment from different suppliers to work together. The TF takes User and Operator input and co-operates with ETSI which maintains the TETRA standard.. The Transport Group TG provides a platform for everyone interested in the implementation of TETRA in the transportation sector. Participants share experiences and information focusing on the market potential for future TETRA projects as well as representing users interests. Regional TETRA Forums There are also a number of TETRA Forums with membership specific to a country or region. These provide a platform for local technology promotion and also support TCCA initiatives to help national members to get maximum benefit. TETRA for public safety 39 Events Key to the promotion of critical communications across the world is the TCCAs programme of events. This is designed to ensure that all who wish to participate can access an event in their country or region. The locations of the events are decided in consultation with the Members who are all able to participate. Events are held in mature and emerging markets with the conference seminar andor workshop content and presentations carefully compiled to ensure relevance to each audience. They vary from one day conferences and exhibitions to larger scale events. The TCCA also participates and supports third party and Members events. Critical communications for all professional users 40 Visitors to all events benefit from hearing about the latest developments user case studies from a variety of sectors and future plans for the technology standard. They can participate in interactive sessions listen to the experiences of other users and suppliers from around the world and take the opportunity to talk to a range of organisations all brought together in a single venue. The full schedule of critical communications events can be found at For further information on the events programme please contact TETRA for data Join us The TCCA is membership-driven. Our Members actively participate in the management of the TCCA helping to shape future strategy and thus influence the development of TETRA and the future of critical communications. We work together to create success and to safeguard the end-users and the wider public who rely upon TETRA. Members of the TCCA include Application providers Consultants Forums Integrators Manufacturers Media National Government representatives Operators Test ServicesSystems suppliers Users Value Added Resellers To find out more about joining the TCCA please contact 43 Glossary 2G 2nd Generation of mobile cellular technology 3G 3rd Generation of mobile cellular technology 3GPP 3G Partnership Project 4G 4th Generation of mobile cellular technology AI Air Interface AIE Air Interface Encryption APL Automatic Person Location ATEX The ATEX directive consists of two EU directives describing what equipment is allowed in an environment with an explosive atmosphere. ATEX derives its name from the French title of the 949EC directive Appareils destins tre utiliss en ATmosphres EXplosibles AVL Automatic Vehicle Location BS Base Station CCK Common Cipher Key DCK Derived Cipher Key DGNA Dynamic Group Number Assignment DMO Direct Mode Operation communication between radio terminals outside the coverage of a TETRA radio network infrastructure DMR Digital Mobile Radio dPMR Digital PMR E2EE End to End Encryption ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institution GCK Group Cipher Key GPRS General Packet Radio Service GPS Global Positioning System GSM Global System for Mobile Communications GSSI Group Short Subscriber Identity GTSI Group TETRA Subscriber Identity Critical communications for all professional users 44 HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access HSUPA High Speed Uplink Packet Access IOP Interoperability of TETRA equipment IP Internet Protocol ISI Inter-System Interface ISSI Individual Short Subscriber Identity LTE Long Term Evolution of mobile cellular technology MCCH Main Control Channel MS Mobile Station MSPD Multi Slot Packet Data OTAK Over the Air Keying OTAR Over the Air Re-Keying PEI Peripheral Equipment Interface PMR Professional Mobile Radio PPDR Public Protection and Disaster Relief SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition SCCH Secondary Control Channel SCK Static Cipher Key SDS Short Data Service SwMI Switching and Management Infrastructure TCCA TETRA Critical Communications Association TC TETRA Technical Committee TETRA ETSI TDMA Time Division Multiple Access TEA TETRA Encryption Algorithm TEDS TETRA Enhanced Data Service high speed data service in TETRA Release 2 standards TETRA TErrestrial Trunked RAdio the ETSI standard for digital trunked radio communications TIP TETRA Interoperability Profile TMO Trunked Mode Operation communication between radio terminals within the coverage of a TETRA radio network infrastructure TETRA for communications clarity Credits With thanks to Motorola Solutions for The benefits of TETRA and to P3 communications for the Glossary. Photographs reproduced by kind permission of Airbus Airwave ASTRID DAMM IIR Telecoms Technology Motorola Solutions Rohill Sepura and Tapio Makinen. Page 9 Getty Images pages 11-12 Christophe Vander Eecken pages 17-18 KNRM - NL Coastguard and pages 45-46 Lnsi Uusimaa Department for Rescue Services. Legal disclaimer Published by The TETRA MoU Association Ltd Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 4HZ in May 2015. Reproduction is permitted if referring to the source. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this publication is correct and accurate. The TCCA cannot accept any liability for any consequential loss or damage however caused arising as a result of using the information in this publication. Printed in the UK 2015. The TETRA logo is registered to The TETRA MoU Association Ltd. All other trademarks and logos are the properties of their respective owners. 2015 The TETRA Critical Communications Association Visit us at To request copies of this booklet please contact